MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS OF MERCURY-CONTAINING PRODUCTS IN KOREA
There are a number of mercury-containing fluorescent products (e.g., fluorescent lamps, batteries, switches, thermometers, and dental amalgams) that have been used in Korea. Although the use and amounts of the products are decreasing, large amounts of used or waste mercury-containing products are generated each year. Improper disposal of such products may result in severe human health problems and the environmental impacts. Thus, environmentally sound management of mercury-added products is an issue of concern around the world. In Korea, used fluorescent lamps and batteries were included in the extended producer responsibility (EPR) system in 2003 for recycling and recovery of the waste from consumers and reduction of its impact on the environment. This paper presents material flow analysis (MFA) of mercury-containing products in Korea. Material flow analysis was conducted to examine the flow of mercury in the products. The results were based on field visits to the used fluorescent and HID (High Intensity Discharge) lamps recycling facilities, the review of available literature, and interviews with the manufacturing and recycling facilities, and environmental regulatory authorities. Approximately 3.0 ton of mercury is generated from fluorescent lamps, while 1.8 ton of mercury is originated from mercury thermometer and blood pressure. Based on the results of MFA, a total of 5.3 ton mercury from mercury-containing products should be properly managed and treated in 2015.
ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND PATTERNS FOR THE CHINA MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM SECTORAL PERSPECTIVES BASED ON INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS
This paper carried out income-based accounting (IBA) and consumption-based accounting (CBA) combined with emission linkage analysis and structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to calculate embodied and enabled mercury emissions in China, for in-depth understanding of the supply and demand patterns of key emissions sectors and socioeconomic drivers that affected mercury emissions in China. The results show that 7 sectors were identified as key mercury emission sectors in 2012 based on emission linkage analysis. IBA identifies mining and service sectors as major income-based mercury emitters and CBA identifies construction and manufacture sectors as major consumption-based mercury emitters. As for mercury emissions embodied in different final demand categories and enabled by different primary input categories, fixed capital formation contributed 304.1 t of mercury embodied emissions, while employee compensation lead to 182.4 t of enabled mercury emissions in China in 2012. Supply-side SDA indicates that, from 1997 to 2012, primary input structure has large contribution to the mercury emission increase. It brought greater impact on mercury emissions increase than final demand structure based on demand-side SDA. Meanwhile, economic structure change (including primary input structure and final demand structure) reduced the mercury emissions in 2007-2012. The production output structure has different effect compared with the production input structure. Our results indicated that more comprehensive knowledge of supply and demand patterns of sectors could help government formulate better policies to control mercury emissions.